These badges represent some of the most famous particles, which are part of the so-called Standard Model of Particle Physics.
This model comprises all known matter particles, as well as force and carrier particles.
Together with the nucleus, electrons make up atoms.
Down quarks have an electric charge of minus one-third. Protons contain one down quark, while neutrons contain two.
Gluons are the carrier of the strong force, which binds quarks together to make protons and neutrons (and other particles).
This is the particle associated with the Higgs field, which interacts with other matter particles to give them a mass that depends on the degree of interaction.
Its existence was confirmed in July 2012, thanks to observations made by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN.
Up quarks have an electric charge of plus two-thirds. Protons contain two up quarks, while neutrons contain one.
Neutrinos are particles with no electric charge and a very small mass; billions of them fly through our bodies every second. There are three flavours: electron neutrinos, muon neutrinos and tau neutrinos.
Photons are the carrier of the electromagnetic force that binds electrons to nuclei in atoms, allows atoms to form molecules and is responsible for the properties of solids, liquids and gases.
|Graviton (not yet observed)
This is the hypothetical carrier of gravity, which makes apples fall to the ground, and, on the astronomical scale, binds matter in planets and stars and holds stars together in galaxies.